Notes on software abstraction



The concept of abstraction - The term abstraction has a long history of senses, it derives from the Latin abstractus originally connoting asceticism and meaning "to withdraw from worldly affairs". Etymologically it is derived from the combination of the word-forming element "ab-" meaning "off, away from" and the verb "trahere" meaning "to drag, draw" and translating as "to detach, to pull away".

In software design we typically think of abstraction as a design tool that detaches from particulars that which they share in common. Iterative application of this process forms a hierarchy or tree structure.

The hierarchical notion of abstraction used in zoological classification as well as in software design is defined most simply by Barabara Liskov in "Abstraction and specification in program development" as the following process:

... to forget information ... [in order] to treat things that are different as if they were the same

This method of abstraction traces its roots back to Aristotle's Categoriae as the genus-differentia style of definition. Aristotle's positive definition of abstraction can be derived from his definition of subjects (specific instances of an abstraction) as follows:

... that which is either predicable of a subject or present in a subject

That is, abstraction maintains either an inheritable (predicable) or compositional (present in) relationship with those things it abstracts. An Admin is a kind of User, a User has a username. However, for Aristotle "present in" has the very specific meaning:

... incapable of existence apart from said subject

For example, a User is capable of existence without an Address as it likely still contains other information (an id, a username, etc) that is more fundamental to the concept of a User. Therefore, an Address is not inseparably part of a User though a User may have an address, they may even have many.

When we are looking to define abstractions we can conduct this subtraction exercise to separate those things which are necessarily part of a given abstraction from those things which are only optionally part of it. It often makes more sense to define Address as a separate abstraction that maintains a relation to a User.

These two definitions - the process definition and the positive definition - explain how we abstract and what separates an abstraction from the individual things it covers. An abstraction is an object in its own right, one that covers a heterogeneous set of particular objects. But what of this covering?


Comprehension and extension - Debatably introduced in "The Port-Royal Logic" by Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole. The comprehension of an abstraction is defined as:

... those attributes which ... cannot be taken away without destroying it

The comprehension is the concise definition of an abstraction with all superfluous details removed. The extension on the other hand is:

... those subjects to which the [abstraction] applies ...

That is, all of the individual objects covered by an abstraction. Comprehension and extension correspond closely to what in software is called the interface and its implementations. When we say that an interface is extensible, we mean that we can freely increase its extension by adding new implementations.


Inverse relationship - Deleuze points out in "Difference and Repetition" as did many before him such as Cardinal Mercier that extension and comprehension maintain an inverse relationship. The greater the number of individuals covered by an abstraction, the lower the comprehension or number of attributes that abstraction can have. Conversely, the lower the number of individuals covered, the more attributes they can share within a single abstraction.

In software terms, the more specific implementations we try to cover with an interface, the fewer things we can actually do with those implementations through that interface. Interfaces trade off access to specific functionality with applicability to a broader set of implementations.

For example, if you define an interface to take an Object or void* you have gained a maximum of extension (you can operate on any kind of entity). However, this maximum extension is paid for with a minimum of comprehension (you can't do much with the things passed in). Conversely, if you revise the interface to take an int64_t, you have attained a maximum of comprehension (you have access to all the operations defined for int64_t) in exchange for a minimum of extension (you can only operate on instances of int64_t). Between the two lies a spectrum of degrees of extension and comprehension, but always in this inverse relationship.


Interface intensity - De Morgan says in his Formal Logic:

According to such statements as I have seen, "man residing in Europe, drawing breath north of the equator, seeing the sun rise before those in America," would be a more intensively quantified notion than "man residing in Europe"; but certainly not less extensive, for the third and fourth elements of the notion must belong to those men to whom the first and second belong.

The intensity of an interface is a measure of how overdetermined that interface is. Intensity, as a rule, does not reduce the extension of an abstraction but merely incorporates more fields, methods, or qualifications within it. The more of these we introduce the more intensive the interface becomes.

For example, we might define an integer interface with methods like add(), sub(), mul(), and div(). This would extend over all basic machine types: 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit integers. An intesification of this interface could be made by introducing concepts like saturating_add(), overflowing_add(), wrapping_add() and so on for all the operations. The abstraction has not lost any of its extension - it still applies to all the basic machine types - but these additions represent an intesification of the overall interface and its semantics.


Blockage - Reality and thought both provide unique problems and stumbling blocks for abstraction. In the most general terms, the extension of an abstraction becomes blocked whenever the differences between the things abstracted reassert themselves in a way that is dissonant with the original abstraction. You know that the machine is capable of doing (or not doing) a particular thing, but the abstraction as it exists blocks us from doing (or not doing) it. This can happen in thought as a new or revised assumption that the abstraction now violates or fails to incorporate. It can happen in practice as a change in the state of affairs the abstraction was created to encapsulate or bring about.

When the extension of an interface becomes blocked you are left with four options:

1. Remake the interface

Perhaps you have created an abstraction called File with methods read() and write(), but you now realize you need some way to change the position you're reading from or writing to. In this case, you may simply patch the original interface by adding a new seek() method. In a more complicated scenario, you might remake the abstraction entirely, moving to a model where blocks of data are asynchronously read or written at specific locations using a transfer() method and allowing users to poll for the status of their transfers.

2. Break apart the interface

Maybe you decide that Files that allow seeking and those that do not are really two separate things. This might lead us to break these apart into a File abstraction for seekable things and a Stream abstraction for non-seekable things.

3. Introduce new semantics into the interface

Perhaps instead of splitting the file abstraction apart you add a seek() method everywhere, and establish the convention that for non-seekable implementations calling seek() simply succeeds without doing anything. This would prevent the need for downstream code modifications, but complicates the semantics for our users as they must now be aware that sometimes seek() may not do any seeking.

4. Introduce a means of accessing the implementations through the interface

Linux device drivers provide a nice example of this with ioctl(2). Because hardware is so difficult to abstract as devices evolve and manufacturers add extended and specialized functionality, some sort of "escape hatch" is needed for accessing device-specific functionality through the linux file-system interface (for example, querying disk drive geometry). ioctl() provides an extension point for individual device drivers to satisfy additional, device-specific requests through the file descriptor interface. ioctl() itself takes only the device's file descriptor, an integer value representing the request type, and an arbitrary set of arguments constituting the request. The downside of this approach is that clients of ioctl() cannot learn about the additional functionality except by discovering and incorporating knowledge of specific devices into their programs. There is also nothing preventing ioctl() interfaces from changing or breaking client programs and no way for client programs to learn about this breakage except by observing their programs fail or keeping an eye on changes to the relevant device drivers. A new set of conventions and pseudo-interfaces has grown around ioctl() requests for specific classes of devices as an attempt to alleviate these problems.


Leakage - Whereas blockage occurs in the interface, abstraction leakage occurs in the implementations. Specifically, leakage occurs when details of the implementation are revealed through the interface when it is applied in a particular way - that which was believed buried has come back to haunt us. An example, given by Kiczales, is the attempt to use a Window abstraction to handle the cells in a spreadsheet by simply creating a set of child windows as follows:

for(int i = 0; i < 100; ++i) {
  for(int j = 0; j < 100; ++j) {
    mkwindow(parent, 20, 10, i*20, j*10);

The hope is that this would allow for the display of a rectangular grid of cells and the intercepting of keyboard and mouse events on individual cells using functionality provided by the standard window interface. However, in practice this approach is never used as window abstractions tend to be too heavy-weight to remain performant when there are lots of windows. Details about the implementation of the window abstraction leak through the interface in the slowdown produced when it is used in this way. It is revealed that there are semantics and states of affairs outside of the abstraction that must now be accounted for.

In the case of a leak there are several options:

1. Patch the leak

To patch the leak you might try to gain and exploit knowledge of the problematic implementation. In the spreadsheet case above you might learn about the internal structure of the Window objects themselves. For example, you might find an internal flag is_modal that you can set to prevent certain costly operations when rendering or updating. Such patches tend to be brittle in the face of changes in the underlying implementation and brittle in usage beyond tested limits since they largely rely on misusing knowledge about the implementation.

2. Repair the leak

To repair a leaky abstraction generally requires a drop down into the problematic implementation itself. In the Window case this might involve modifying the Window data structure in order to optimize the particularly slow functionality.

3. Build a new abstraction

Finally, you can rebuild the abstraction to fix the leakage exposed. For example, in the spreadsheet case you might simply choose to implement your own Cell interface with a lighter-weight data structure, foregoing the reuse of the Window code entirely and likely duplicating much of it in the process.


The general problem of software design - The function of software, as noted most concisely by Jackson, is described as follows:

The machine is physically embodied in a general-purpose computer built by hardware engineers ... the software describes the particular machine needed for the purpose in hand, and transforms the computer into that machine.

All design involves the determination of how best to specialize a general purpose computer to satisfy a particular set of needs. During the execution of the program the machine is transformed into a specialized machine for carrying out a particular project.

Under this lens the problems of blockage and leakage can be seen as a battle between the Turing-completeness of our general purpose computer and the Turing-incompleteness introduced by our abstractions. As stated concisely by Engler:

'Infinite' extensibility requires Turing completeness, Turing completeness gives infinite extensibility ... [infinite] extensibility requires supporting all unanticipated use cases.

The most flexible abstractions are Turing-complete, Turing-incomplete abstractions always have some blockage or leakage. However, blockage and leakage may also result from operating system and hardware abstractions or when the reality of modern hardware reasserts itself.


The material reality of the computer - Far from being pure thought stuff, software is always tasked with running on some actually existing machine and utilizing some actually existing hardware. All abstractions eventually resolve back through the operating system and hardware interfaces to physical effects produced in hardware.

The operating system is an abstraction (see Arpaci-Dusseau) that allows every running process to behave as if it had exclusive access to the total machine. It does this by providing hardware, file system, and virtual memory abstractions and by multiplexing access to hardware. Processes request access to these shared resources using OS-provided interfaces defined via syscalls. The difference between syscall interfaces produce incompatabilities that require programs to be separately compiled for each OS, even when targeting the same hardware. In exchange the OS hides hardware details, provides some safety, and also performs global optimizations on resource requests including scheduling and caching.

Hardware itself provides abstractions in the form of CPU instructions, memory-mapped I/O, and interrupts. The ideal of a CPU linearly executing a program instruction-by-instruction is also an abstraction provided by modern CPUs as they increasingly utilize out-of-order execution, branch prediction, cache prefetching, and distributed consensus protocols for cache coherency.

This shifting substrate means that idealized notions about performance as embodied in big-O notation may no longer hold. In practice, it is not uncommon to find that an O(n) = n + m algorithm (ex. deletion in an array) is faster than an O(1) = m algorithm (ex. deletion in a linked-list) as the m in the latter big-O model becomes increasingly large on modern hardware. See, for example, Wicht on how linked-lists can underperform simple arrays for random insertion/deletion due to the extensive caching on modern CPUs. Big-O notation itself is an abstraction that relies on an idealized model of the computer, it too is prone to blockage and leakage.


Semantic compression and leverage - Software abstraction proceeds mechanically by substitution and spatial and temporal subdivision. The process to be carried out by a program is temporally subdivided into its moments, their sequential combination produces the desired effect. The data and code is spatially subdivided in memory. The call or jump as well as the pointer or reference are the facilitators of substitution. Linear organization in memory is the facilitator of spatial and temporal subdivision.

Substituting a call to a subroutine for the contents of a subroutine builds a lexicon which can be used to reduce duplication and heterogeneity. Using a pointer or reference instead of a value reduces duplication and copying. Both facilitate compression of data as well as compression of semantics. Both of these give us leverage - the ability to do a lot with a little.

It is precisely here that a risk arises. We can view the whole purpose of abstraction as the dissection of a program into its conceptual categories. This was the profound error and misstep of object-oriented programming (OOP). This style of abstraction leads to the traditional problems of reason, logic, and language as thoroughly covered by Beiser. Alternatively, we can view the purpose of abstraction as compression guided by resemblance and analogy. This style of abstraction has poetry and literature as its exemplary arts. We are given these techniques of substitution in order find the boundaries and limits of resemblance and analogy in pursuit of compression. The choice of path on this fork is the momentous decision that determines the whole of the method we pursue in construction.


incoming(2): memory allocatorswriting

Last update on 7E5108, edited 6 times. 17/18thh